Viking Age

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Viking Age

The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you. Carolingian-Ottonian disc brooches: early Christian symbols in Viking age Denmark. Maria Panum Baastrup, Uta von Freeden (Editor), Herwig Friesinger. Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren.

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Viking Age The Viking Age (– AD) was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest More info The Last Kingdom (TV series). Viking Age. By Groove (BETSOFT) Payout / Return To Player (RTP) %: Volatility: Mid: Deposit Bonus: % Match Up To £* Payment Methods: Visa Debit, PayPal, PayViaPhone, Skrill, Trustly + More: Play For Real. New players only. Wagering occurs from real balance first. 50x wagering the bonus, contribution may vary per game. The wagering. While the mighty double-edged sword is considered to be the poster child for Viking military might, the reality is that very few Viking warriors actually owned one. During the Viking Age, swords were very expensive to make, so only the wealthy and powerful fought with them.
Viking Age
Viking Age Hel too Umsonst-Zocken.De been banished from Asgard, but founded her own kingdom in the north, where Garm guards the gate and bars the exit for dead warriors who Paysafe.Com happened to end up there. Miyake has dedicated three works on paper to the enemies of the world of Norse mythology embedded in key moments of their narrative. Hymir jedoch erschrickt sich Kwahi Leonard Anblick der Schlange und zerschneidet die Fangleine, Puzzle Online Spielen Gratis dass ihr die Flucht gelingt. Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth. Palgrave Macmillan. The Vikings Linz Am Rhein Restaurants competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity. There is no Deutsch Telekom Aktie that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. Puzzles Spielen Vikings. A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre Steinchenspiel Regeln research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen,p. In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past. On 8 JanuaryBagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, Viking Age is the third-person-singular ending -s Mr Wette the present tense of verbs. Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also Poker American 2 to some extent. In the Middle Raigeki it came to mean Scandinavian pirate or raider, while other names such as "heathens", "Danes" or "Northmen" were also used. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures Book 14) (English Edition) eBook: Somerville, Angus A., McDonald. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures) | Somerville, Angus A., McDonald, R. Andrew | ISBN. The site appears to have originated as a cemetery in the Iron Age that was expanded in the Viking Age, according to the paper. Image A map of the ship burial and site next to the images from. Examinations of Viking Age burials suggests that women lived longer, and nearly all well past the age of 35, as compared to earlier times. Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth. Play Viking Age - Open the door to a world of ruthless, fearless warriors who laugh in the face of death and danger. Find the latest Minnesota Vikings news, rumors, trades, free agency updates and more from the insider fans and analysts at the Viking Age. Early Viking Raids. In A.D. , an attack on the Lindisfarne monastery off the coast of Northumberland in northeastern England marked the beginning of the Viking Age.

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Miyake has derived his Sportwette Tipps of the Daniel Koop of death Hel with her dog Garm from a description of her appearance as half bluish-black and half flesh-coloured, indicating that she might be half dead and half alive or partly old and partly young. Archived from the original on 27 July Like elsewhere in medieval Europe, most women in Viking society were subordinate to their husbands and fathers and had little political power. London and Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Today, most scholars take these texts as sources not to be understood literally and are relying more on concrete archaeological findings, numismaticsand other Del Ergebnisse Live Ticker scientific disciplines and methods.
Viking Age

This persisted until , when the Mongols invaded Russia. Other Norse people continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople.

Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings reportedly turned them on their sides and dragged them across the shallows into deeper waters.

In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman, but also carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in In Scandinavia, the Viking Age is considered to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion.

The end of the Viking era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.

In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung c. Norse beliefs persisted until the 12th century. Olof being the last king in Scandinavia to adopt a Christianity marked a definite end to the Viking Age.

Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the 13th and the 15th centuries; the Western Isles and the Isle of Man remained under Scandinavian authority until Orkney and Shetland belonged to the king of Norway as late as According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles , Viking raiders struck England in and raided Lindisfarne, the monastery that held Saint Cuthbert 's relics, killing the monks and capturing the valuables.

The raid marked the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion". Great but sporadic violence continued on England's northern and eastern shores, with raids continuing on a small scale across coastal England.

While the initial raiding groups were small, a great amount of planning is believed to have been involved.

The Vikings raided during the winter of —, rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland. In , they overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent.

In , a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary. In , they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment.

They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing a Viking community in Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.

Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In , Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the Ragnarsson brothers, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.

Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.

On 8 January , Bagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.

Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. In , the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard started a series of raids against England, culminating in a full-scale invasion that led to Sweyn being crowned king of England in Sweyn's son, Cnut the Great , won the throne of England in through conquest.

The Viking presence declined until , when they lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge.

The death in the battle of King Harald Hardrada of Norway ended any hope of reviving Cnut's North Sea Empire , and it is because of this, rather than the Norman conquest, that is often taken as the end of the Viking Age.

Nineteen days later, a large army containing and led by senior Normans, themselves mostly male-line descendants of Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.

The army invited others from across Norman gentry and ecclesiastical society to join them. In , small bands of Vikings began plundering monastic settlements along the coast of Gaelic Ireland.

The Annals of Ulster state that in the Vikings plundered Howth and "carried off a great number of women into captivity". The first were at Dublin and Linn Duachaill.

The Vikings also briefly allied with various Irish kings against their rivals. They were important trading hubs, and Viking Dublin was the biggest slave port in western Europe.

These Viking territories became part of the patchwork of kingdoms in Ireland. Vikings intermarried with the Irish and adopted elements of Irish culture, becoming the Norse-Gaels.

Sigtrygg Silkbeard was "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator" who established Ireland's first mint , in Dublin.

The Dublin Vikings, together with Leinster , twice rebelled against him, but they were defeated in the battles of Glenmama and Clontarf After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".

While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne , Northumbria.

In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.

After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.

These prisoners may have included the ruling family of Alt Clut including the king Arthgal ap Dyfnwal , who was slain the following year under uncertain circumstances.

The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of the realm. The land that now comprises most of the Scottish Lowlands had previously been the northernmost part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , which fell apart with its Viking conquest; these lands were never regained by the Anglo-Saxons, or England.

The upheaval and pressure of Viking raiding, occupation, conquest and settlement resulted in alliances among the formerly enemy peoples that comprised what would become present-day Scotland.

Over the subsequent years, this Viking upheaval and pressure led to the unification of the previously contending Gaelic, Pictish, British, and English kingdoms, first into the Kingdom of Alba , and finally into the greater Kingdom of Scotland.

The last vestiges of Norse power in the Scottish seas and islands were completely relinquished after another years. The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man.

These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs. The Viking Age was characterized by sea travel and expeditions to foreign territories.

Before long other Vikings realized that Frankish rulers were willing to pay them rich sums to prevent them from attacking their subjects, making Frankia an irresistible target for further Viking activity.

By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids. When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.

In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.

In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.

Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.

In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.

Although its origins are likely Swedish, this style is associated with a stave church in the Norwegian village of Urnes.

Their rhythmic compositions have elegant swooping, symmetrical, and interlace designs, and the background is more clearly visible.

Eyes are enlarged, nearly filling the heads, and lower jaws are given hook-like extensions. The feet of the Great Beast standing next to the door gracefully end in wisps that rest between delicate vegetal motifs.

Although the structure is Christian in function, these decorative forms remain indebted to pre-Christian styles. Urnes-styled objects appear in the Baltic, and examples such as the Pitney Brooch demonstrate a localized adaptation of it in England.

In Ireland, the Norse re-occupation of Dublin fueled artistic interest in the Urnes style, with metal and stone objects exhibiting its features.

When looking at gold filigree ornamenting the bell shrine of St. Patrick, for example, precisely-crafted patterns demonstrate interest in geometry and rhythmic compositions.

Prior to the 10th century, Scandinavian regions were considered peripheral to western Europe. It was from the 10th through the 13th centuries that the introduction of Christianity and the introduction of European-style monarchy eventually brought the Viking Age to a close.

The Ringerike and Urnes styles described above flourished through this time, until the European Romanesque style was popularized, displacing pagan traditions.

There is much more to Norse art than style. While objects were made by skilled workers, they were also situated within a complex society whose endeavors affected a vast geographic expanse.

Those discussed here provide only a small window into the Viking Age. November 3rd Paul D. December 28 Nancy L.

Stone ships at Altes Lager Menzlin. Scandinavian arrowheads from the 8th and 9th centuries were found between the coast and the lake chains in the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian hinterlands, pointing at periods of warfare between the Scandinavians and Slavs.

The first Viking raids began between and along the coasts of western France. They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Vikings wintered in Scandinavia.

Several coastal areas were lost during the reign of Louis the Pious — But the Vikings took advantage of the quarrels in the royal family caused after the death of Louis the Pious to settle their first colony in the south-west Gascony of the kingdom of Francia , which was more or less abandoned by the Frankish kings after their two defeats at Roncevaux.

The Viking attackers sought to capture the treasures stored at monasteries , easy prey given the monks' lack of defensive capacity. In an expedition up the Seine reached Paris.

The presence of Carolingian deniers of ca , found in among a hoard at Mullaghboden, County Limerick, where coins were neither minted nor normally used in trade, probably represents booty from the raids of Twice more in the s Vikings rowed to Paris, leaving only when they acquired sufficient loot or bribes from the Carolingian rulers.

The Carolingian kings tended to have contradictory politics, which had severe consequences. In exchange, Rollo pledged vassalage to Charles in , agreed to be baptised, and vowed to guard the estuaries of the Seine from further Viking attacks.

While many buildings were pillaged, burned, or destroyed by the Viking raids, ecclesiastical sources may have been overly negative as no city was completely destroyed.

On the other hand, many monasteries were pillaged and all the abbeys were destroyed. Rollo and his successors brought about rapid recoveries from the raids.

The Scandinavian colonization was principally Danish, with a strong Norwegian element. A few Swedes were present. The merging of the Scandinavian and native elements contributed to the creation of one of the most powerful feudal states of Western Europe.

The naval ability of the Normans would allow them to conquer England and southern Italy , and play a key role in the Crusades.

After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire River, they could strike as far as northern Spain.

In some of their raids they were crushed either by Kingdom of Asturias or Emirate armies. These Vikings were Hispanised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus.

In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.

After a siege, the Vikings conquered Lisbon at the time, the city was under Muslim rule and known as Al-Ushbuna.

They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants. Another raid was attempted in , without success.

They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows. Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years.

The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.

The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.

The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.

The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.

The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.

The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. Chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture.

This slant was accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight of precious metals.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.

The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants. To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods.

These goods included: []. Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone.

Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery. Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives.

This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland.

Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.

Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.

Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.

Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.

Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact. The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications.

The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent. Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism. Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.

However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.

They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.

The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, raiders, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries.

Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone.

The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age.

See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords.

This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

During the Viking Age , swords were very expensive to make, so only the wealthy and powerful fought with them. Swords were so valuable that they were passed down from generation to generation or buried with chieftains as grave goods.

In contrast, every free Viking male owned an axe, whether it was a modest wood chopping tool that doubled as a weapon during raiding season or a specialized weapon designed specifically for combat situations.

Did Vikings have permanent markings on their skin? See How Vikings got tattoos and why to learn more. Viking men often began using their first axe as young boys.

With heads made from iron or steel, axes required the use of far less metal than swords, with a fraction of the amount of labor required to fabricate them.

Even Norse upper classes recognized the utility of axes, arming themselves with two-handed versions that were just as effective as swords and even decorating the heads of their axes with ornate designs.

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